The Many Faces of Cell Death

April 27, 2023


We are excited to announce the release of our latest resource - the Cell Death eBook! This comprehensive ebook covers various cell death pathways, including apoptosis, parthanatos, necroptosis, cuproptosis, and more, providing in-depth information on their mechanisms and implications.


Cell death is a fundamental process that occurs throughout the life cycle of an organism. It plays a crucial role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. There are several different types of cell death, each with its own unique molecular mechanisms and functional consequences.

Apoptosis is a highly regulated and programmed form of cell death that is essential for normal development, tissue homeostasis, and immune system function. It involves a cascade of intracellular signaling events that culminate in the activation of caspases, a family of proteases that cleave key cellular substrates leading to the characteristic morphological changes associated with apoptosis.

Parthanatos is a caspase-independent form of cell death that is mediated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. It involves the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from mitochondria to the nucleus, where it induces chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation.

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent form of regulated cell death that is caused by the accumulation of lipid peroxides. It is characterized by the inhibition of the glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and the consequent accumulation of lipid peroxides, which lead to oxidative damage and cell death.

Necroptosis is a form of programmed necrosis that occurs when apoptotic pathways are blocked or inhibited. It is characterized by the activation of receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3) and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), resulting in plasma membrane rupture and release of intracellular contents.

Cuproptosis is a form of cell death that is triggered by copper ions. It is characterized by the release of copper ions from intracellular compartments, leading to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death.

Pyroptosis is a highly inflammatory form of cell death that is initiated by the activation of inflammasomes, a group of cytosolic protein complexes that sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). It involves the activation of distinct caspases and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18.

Erebosis is a recently described form of regulated cell death found in the Drosophila intestine and named after the Greek word έρεβος, meaning “deep darkness”.

Download eBook