Enzymes

Rockland offers antibody and protein conjugates with a wide range of common enzymatic reporter molecules used in molecular immunology. Tt reporter molecules typically include enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose oxidase (GO), and beta-galactosidase (BGAL or ßgal).

For each reporter enzyme conjugate, Rockland offers a variety of substrates and enzymes for research that will generate either a soluble or insoluble colored product. Soluble substrates are useful to quantitate analytes in liquid phase assays like ELISA. Insoluble substrates are excellent to localize analytes in solid-phase assays like WB and immunohistochemistry (IHC).



The Enzymatic Process

Our experience in working with antibodies allows us to process immunoglobulins into their constituent components. In some assays, it is preferable to use only the antigen-binding (Fab) portion of the antibody to prevent the constant (Fc) portion from binding to some cell surface receptors. For these applications, antibodies may be enzymatically digested using papain or pepsin to produce a Fab, Fc, or F(ab')2 fragment of the antibody. The enzyme papain can be used to cleave a single immunoglobulin molecule into two Fab fragments and an Fc fragment. The enzyme pepsin cleaves below the antibody’s hinge region, so an F(ab')2 fragment and an Fc fragment are formed.

Rockland offers a variety of labeled and unlabeled immunoglobulin fragments in addition to high-quality antibody fragmentation services that will provide you with optimum yields and predictable results for your custom F(ab’)2, Fab, and Fc fragments.