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ATM phospho S1981 Antibody

Mouse Monoclonal 10H11.E12 IgG1 kappa

125 References
200-301-400S 200-301-400
25 µL 100 µg
Liquid (sterile filtered) Liquid (sterile filtered)
WB, ELISA, IHC, IF, FC, Biochemical Assay, ChIP, FISH, IP, Multiplex
Human, Mouse, Rat
Mouse
$125.00 /Per Item
$565.00 /Per Item
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Background

Anti ATM pS1981 Antibody is a phospho site specific antibody and recognizes the product of the ATM gene that is mutated in the hereditary disease ataxia-telangiectasia. ATM codes for a protein kinase that acts as a master regulator of cellular responses to DNA double-strand breaks. ATM is normally inactive and the question of how it is activated in the event of DNA damage (due to ionizing radiation for instance) is central to understanding its function. ATM protein is now shown to be present in undamaged cells as an inactive dimer. Low doses of ionizing radiation, which induce only a few DNA breaks, activate at least half of the total ATM protein present, possibly in response to changes in chromatin structure.  The ATM gene encodes a 370-kDa protein that belongs to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI(3)K) superfamily, but which phosphorylates proteins rather than lipids. The 350-amino-acid kinase domain at the carboxy terminus of this large protein is the only segment of ATM with an assigned function. Exposure of cells to IR triggers ATM kinase activity, and this function is required for arrests in G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle. Several substrates of the ATM kinase participate in these IR-induced cell-cycle arrests. These include p53, Mdm2 and Chk2 in the G1 checkpoint; Nbs1, Brca1, FancD2 and SMC1 in the transient IR-induced S-phase arrest; and Brca1 and hRad17 in the G2/M checkpoint. Ideal for Cancer, Cell Signaling, Chromatin, Neuroscience and Signal Transduction research.

Product Details

Anti-ATM Protein Kinase pS1981 (MOUSE) Monoclonal Antibody - 200-301-400
mouse anti-ATM antibody, mouse anti-ATMpS1981 antibody, mouse anti- ATM pS1981 antibody, DKFZp781A0353 antibody, Human phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase homolog antibody, MGC74674 antibody, Serine protein kinase ATM antibody, T cell prolymphocytic leukemia antibody
Mouse
Monoclonal
IgG1

Target Details

ATM  - View All ATM Products
Human, Mouse, Rat
Phosphorylation
Conjugated Peptide
Anti-ATM phospho S1981 Antibody was produced from a synthetic peptide S-L-A-F-E-E-G-Sp-Q-S-T-T-I-S-S corresponding to aa 1974-1988 of human ATM.
Anti-ATM phospho S1981 Monoclonal Antibody is directed against human ATM and is useful in determining its presence in various assays. This monoclonal anti-ATM antibody recognizes the phosphorylated epitope in native and over-expressed proteins found in various tissues and extracts. By ELISA, reactivity against SLAFEEGSpQSTTISS at a 1:1600 dilution shows an absorbance >3.000; whereas reactivity against SLAFEEGSQSTTISS shows an absorbance of 0.145. Reactivity is observed against human ATM. Cross reactivity with ATM from other mammalian sources has not been tested. The immunogen has 91% sequence homology with mouse ATM.

Application Details

ELISA, FC, IF, WB
Biochemical Assay, ChIP, FISH, IHC, IP, Multiplex  - View References
Protein A Purified Mab anti-ATM has been tested by ELISA, FC, IF, and Western blotting against both the native and recombinant forms of the protein. The antibody immunoprecipitates ATM from irradiated human and transfected mouse cells. By immunofluorescence, foci are detected in irradiated human and mouse fibroblasts. This antibody is not recommended for immunohistochemistry. Instead, for IHC, use the clone 7C10D8 (item# 200-301-500).

Formulation

1.0 mg/mL by UV absorbance at 280 nm
0.02 M Potassium Phosphate, 0.15 M Sodium Chloride, pH 7.2
0.01% (w/v) Sodium Azide
None

Shipping & Handling

Dry Ice
Store Anti-ATM phospho S1981 Antibody at -20° C prior to opening. Aliquot contents and freeze at -20° C or below for extended storage. Avoid cycles of freezing and thawing. Centrifuge product if not completely clear after standing at room temperature. This product is stable for several weeks at 4° C as an undiluted liquid. Dilute only prior to immediate use.
Expiration date is one (1) year from date of receipt.
(). DNA-PK participates in pre-rRNA biogenesis independent of DNA double-strand break repair. Nucleic Acids Res.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Pre-rRNA Facilitates TopBP1-Mediated DNA Double-Strand Break Response. Adv Sci (Weinh).
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Oxidative stress induces chromosomal instability through replication stress in fibroblasts from aged mice. J Cell Sci.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Cell cycle-dependent radiosensitivity in mouse zygotes. DNA Repair (Amst).
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Loss of ribonuclease DIS3 hampers genome integrity in myeloma by disrupting DNA:RNA hybrid metabolism. EMBO J.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Phosphorylation of BRCA1 by ATM upon double-strand breaks impacts ATM function in end-resection: A potential feedback loop. iScience.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). MRN-dependent and independent pathways for recruitment of TOPBP1 to DNA double-strand breaks. PloS One
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). SLX4–XPF mediates DNA damage responses to replication stress induced by DNA–protein interactions. J Cell Biol
Applications
Undefined
(). DROSHA is recruited to DNA damage sites by the MRN complex to promote non-homologous end-joining. J Cell Biol
Applications
ChIP; IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Structure-function analysis of TOPBP1's role in ATR signaling using the DSB-mediated ATR activation in Xenopus egg extracts (DMAX) system. Scientific Reports
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Inhibition of DNA replication initiation by silver nanoclusters. Nucleic Acids Res.
Applications
Undefined
(). Pb induced mitochondrial fission of fibroblast cells via ATM activation. J Hazard Mater.
Applications
Undefined
(). IFI16 inhibits DNA repair that potentiates type-I interferon-induced antitumor effects in triple negative breast cancer. Cell Rep.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Chemotherapy of HER2- and MDM2-Enriched Breast Cancer Subtypes Induces Homologous Recombination DNA Repair and Chemoresistance. Cancers (Basel).
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). DNA damage in embryonic neural stem cell determines FTLDs' fate via early-stage neuronal necrosis. Life Sci Alliance.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Evading immune surveillance via tyrosine phosphorylation of nuclear PCNA. Cell Rep.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Class 1 Histone Deacetylases and Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Kinase Control the Survival of Murine Pancreatic Cancer Cells upon dNTP Depletion. Cells.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). HMGB1 signaling phosphorylates Ku70 and impairs DNA damage repair in Alzheimer's disease pathology. Communications Biology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). DNA Damage Response in Xenopus laevis Cell-Free Extracts. Methods Mol Biol.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Association of glomerular DNA damage and DNA methylation with one-year eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy. Sci Rep.
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Panobinostat and venetoclax enhance the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine, busulfan, and melphalan in multiple myeloma cells. Exp Hematol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Phospho-Ser784-VCP is required for DNA damage response and is associated with poor prognosis of chemotherapy-treated breast cancer. Cell Rep
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Dianhydrogalactitol synergizes with topoisomerase poisons to overcome DNA repair activity in tumor cells. Cell Death Dis
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Keap1 inhibition sensitizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells to ionizing radiation via impaired non-homologous end joining and induced autophagy. Cell Death Dis
Applications
Kinase Assay; WB, IB, PCA
(). ATM is a key driver of NF-κB-dependent DNA-damage-induced senescence, stem cell dysfunction and aging. Aging (Albany NY)
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). FBXW7 confers radiation survival by targeting p53 for degradation. Cell Rep
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). ATM Inhibitor Suppresses Gemcitabine-Resistant BTC Growth in a Polymerase θ Deficiency-Dependent Manner. Biomolecules
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). SCFβ-TrCP-mediated degradation of TOP2β promotes cancer cell survival in response to chemotherapeutic drugs targeting topoisomerase II. Oncogenesis
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Targeting DNA-dependent protein kinase sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to proton beam irradiation through apoptosis induction. PLoS One
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). ATM controls DNA repair and mitochondria transfer between neighboring cells. Cell Commun Signal
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). CSB promoter downregulation via histone H3 hypoacetylation is an early determinant of replicative senescence. Nat Commun
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). PPARγ Interaction with UBR5/ATMIN Promotes DNA Repair to Maintain Endothelial Homeostasis. Cell Reports
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). ATM phosphorylation of the actin-binding protein drebrin controls oxidation stress-resistance in mammalian neurons and C. elegans. Nature Communications
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Assessment of epigenetic mechanisms and DNA double-strand break repair using laser micro-irradiation technique developed for hematological cells. EbioMedicine
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Lead (Pb) induced ATM-dependent mitophagy via PINK1/Parkin pathway. Toxicol Lett
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). Epigenetic modification enhances the cytotoxicity of busulfan and4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide in AML cells. Exp Hematol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). DNA repair network analysis reveals shieldin as a key regulator of NHEJ and PARP inhibitor sensitivity. Cell.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Distinct roles of ATM and ATR in the regulation of ARP8 phosphorylation to prevent chromosome translocations. Elife
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Transcription and mRNA export machineries SAGA and TREX-2 maintain monoubiquitinated H2B balance required for DNA repair. J Cell Biol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). The Augmented R-Loop Is a Unifying Mechanism for Myelodysplastic Syndromes Induced by High-Risk Splicing Factor Mutations. Molecular Cell
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). HDAC1 and HDAC2 integrate checkpoint kinase phosphorylation and cell fate through the phosphatase-2A subunit PR130. Nature Communications
Applications
IP, Co-IP; WB, IB, PCA
(). GFI1 facilitates efficient DNA repair by regulating PRMT1 dependent methylation of MRE11 and 53BP1. Nature Communications
Applications
FC, FACS, FLOW; IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Dianhydrogalactitol induces replication-dependent DNA damage in tumor cells preferentially resolved by homologous recombination. Cell Death & Disease
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Cell-based chemical fingerprinting identifies telomeres and lamin A as modifiers of DNA damage response in cancer cells. Scientific Reports
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; ISH, FISH
(). PTEN deletion in luminal cells of mature prostate induces replication stress and senescence in vivo. Journal of Experimental Medicine
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Oridonin promotes G2/M arrest in A549 cells by facilitating ATM activation. Molecular Medicine Reports
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). Coumarin-chalcone hybrid instigates DNA damage by minor groove binding and stabilizes p53 through post translational modifications. Scientific Reports
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). The PARP inhibitor olaparib enhances the cytotoxicity of combined gemcitabine, busulfan and melphalan in lymphoma cells. Leukemia & Lymphoma
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). DNA single-strand break-induced DNA damage response causes heart failure. Nature Communications
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Epigenetic therapy with inhibitors of histone methylation suppresses DNA damage signaling and increases glioma cell radiosensitivity. Oncotarget
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). BRCA2 suppresses replication stress-induced mitotic and G1 abnormalities through homologous recombination. Nature Communications
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). LRRK2 interacts with ATM and regulates Mdm2-p53 cell proliferation axis in response to genotoxic stress. Human Molecular Genetics
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Damage-induced lncRNAs control the DNA damage response through interaction with DDRNAs at individual double-strand breaks. Nature Cell Biology
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). UV-dependent phosphorylation of COP9/signalosome in UV-induced apoptosis. Oncol Rep
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). ATM mediates spermidine-induced mitophagy via PINK1 and Parkin regulation in human fibroblasts. Scientific Reports
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; Multiplex Assay
(). Redox regulation of SUMO enzymes is required for ATM activity and survival in oxidative stress. The EMBO Journal
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Mutant IDH1 Downregulates ATM and Alters DNA Repair and Sensitivity to DNA Damage Independent of TET2. Cancer Cell
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Impaired 53BP1/RIF1 DSB mediated end-protection stimulates CtIP-dependent end resection and switches the repair to PARP1-dependent end joining in G1. Oncotarget
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). SCAI promotes DNA double-strand break repair in distinct chromosomal contexts. Nature Cell Biology
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA
(). The complexity of DNA double strand break is a crucial factor for activating ATR signaling pathway for G2/M checkpoint regulation regardless of ATM function. DNA Repair (Amst)
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). CDK1 inhibition targets the p53-NOXA-MCL1 axis, selectively kills embryonic stem cells, and prevents teratoma formation. Stem Cell Reports
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Notch is a direct negative regulator of the DNA-damage response. Nat Struct Mol Biol
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Comparison of the cytotoxicity of cladribine and clofarabine when combined with fludarabine and busulfan in AML cells: Enhancement of cytotoxicity with epigenetic modulators. Experimental Hematology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Stemness factor Sall4 is required for DNA damage response in embryonic stem cells. Journal of Cell Biology
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Dgcr8 and Dicer are essential for sex chromosome integrity during meiosis in males. Journal of Cell Science
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). DNA Damage Signaling Is Induced in the Absence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Lytic DNA Replication and in Response to Expression of ZEBRA. PLOS One
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Recruitment and activation of the ATM kinase in the absence of DNA-damage sensors. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Role of the Exocyst Complex Component Sec6/8 in Genomic Stability. Molecular and Cellular Biology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 LANA and SOX Homologs Counteract ATM-Driven p53 Activity during Lytic Viral Replication. Journal of Virology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). BRCA1 establishes DNA damage signaling and pericentric heterochromatin of the X chromosome in male meiosis. J Cell Biol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; IP, Co-IP
(). Expression of the genetic suppressor element 24.2 (GSE24. 2) decreases DNA damage and oxidative stress in X-linked dyskeratosis congenita cells. PLoS One
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). A separable domain of the p150 subunit of human chromatin assembly factor-1 promotes protein and chromosome associations with nucleoli. Mol Biol Cell
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Stable cellular senescence is associated with persistent DDR activation. PLoS One
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; Multiplex Assay
(). SETD2 is required for DNA double-strand break repair and activation of the p53-mediated checkpoint. ELife
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). BMS-345541 sensitizes MCF-7 breast cancer cells to ionizing radiation by selective inhibition of homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Radiat Res
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Telomere crisis in kidney epithelial cells promotes the acquisition of a microRNA signature retrieved in aggressive renal cell carcinomas. Carcinogenesis
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Detection of impaired homologous recombination repair in NSCLC cells and tissues. J Thorac Oncol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). The bromodomain protein Brd4 insulates chromatin from DNA damage signalling. Nature
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). ATM mediates pRB function to control DNMT1 protein stability and DNA methylation. Mol Cell Biol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; WB, IB, PCA; Multiplex Assay
(). Poly(ADP-ribose) binding to Chk1 at stalled replication forks is required for S-phase checkpoint activation. Nat Commun
Applications
IP, Co-IP; WB, IB, PCA
(). The telomere deprotection response is functionally distinct from the genomic DNA damage response. Mol Cell.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Ribosomal S6 Kinase 2 (RSK2) maintains genomic stability by activating the Atm/p53-dependent DNA damage pathway. PLoS One
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). ATR prohibits replication catastrophe by preventing global exhaustion of RPA. Cell.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Sodium tungstate modulates ATM function upon DNA damage. FEBS Lett.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). DNA structure-specific priming of ATR activation by DNA-PKcs. J Cell Biol.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Adeno-associated virus type 2 modulates the host DNA damage response induced by herpes simplex virus 1 during coinfection. J Virol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). The DNA damage checkpoint protein ATM promotes hepatocellular apoptosis and fibrosis in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Cell Cycle
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). CUX1 transcription factor is required for optimal ATM/ATR-mediated responses to DNA damage. Nucleic Acids Res
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Telomeric DNA damage is irreparable and causes persistent DNA-damage-response activation. Nat Cell Biol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Threonine 2609 phosphorylation of the DNA-dependent protein kinase is a critical prerequisite for epidermal growth factor receptor-mediated radiation resistance. Mol Cancer Res
Applications
IP, Co-IP; WB, IB, PCA
(). Nuclear lamina defects cause ATM-dependent NF-κB activation and link accelerated aging to a systemic inflammatory response. Genes Dev.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Novel function of the DNA damage response protein ASCIZ as an essential transcription factor. J Biol Chem
Applications
Undefined
(). A telomere-dependent DNA damage checkpoint induced by prolonged mitotic arrest. Nat Struct Mol Biol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). LEDGF (p75) promotes DNA-end resection and homologous recombination. Nat Struct Mol Biol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). TRIP12 and UBR5 suppress spreading of chromatin ubiquitylation at damaged chromosomes. Cell
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Creating localized DNA double-strand breaks with microirradiation. Nat Protoc
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). EDD inhibits ATM-mediated phosphorylation of p53. J Biol Chem
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Chromatin remodeler sucrose nonfermenting 2 homolog (SNF2H) is recruited onto DNA replication origins through interaction with Cdc10 protein-dependent transcript 1 (Cdt1) and promotes pre-replication complex formation. J Biol Chem
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Protein-protein interactions occur between p53 phosphoforms and ATM and 53BP1 at sites of exogenous DNA damage. Radiat Res
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Nuclear accumulation of the papillomavirus E1 helicase blocks S-phase progression and triggers an ATM-dependent DNA damage response. J Virol.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). DNA damage response is suppressed by the high cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activity in mitotic mammalian cells. J Biol Chem.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Multiple DNA damage signaling and repair pathways deregulated by simian virus 40 large T antigen. J Virol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). The matricellular protein CCN1 induces fibroblast senescence and restricts fibrosis in cutaneous wound healing. Nat Cell Biol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation. Radiat Res
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). The chromatin-remodeling factor CHD4 coordinates signaling and repair after DNA damage. J Cell Biol
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). A genetic screen identifies the Triple T complex required for DNA damage signaling and ATM and ATR stability. Genes Dev.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Dual functions of ASCIZ in the DNA base damage response and pulmonary organogenesis. PLoS One
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). A novel type of cellular senescence that can be enhanced in mouse models and human tumor xenografts to suppress prostate tumorigenesis. J Clin Invest
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Parvovirus minute virus of mice induces a DNA damage response that facilitates viral replication. Plos Pathog
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Redundant and differential regulation of multiple licensing factors ensures prevention of re-replication in normal human cells. J Cell Sci
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Limited role of murine ATM in oncogene-induced senescence and p53-dependent tumor suppression. PLoS One
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Adeno-associated virus and adenovirus coinfection induces a cellular DNA damage and repair response via redundant phosphatidylinositol 3-like kinase pathways. Virology
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Chemokine signaling via the CXCR2 receptor reinforces senescence. Cell
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Identification of Novel Human Cdt1-binding Proteins by a Proteomics Approach: Proteolytic Regulation by APC/CCdh1. Mol Biol Cell
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Prevention of aneuploidy by S-adenosyl-methionine in human cells treated with sodium arsenite. Mutat Res
Applications
IHC, ICC, Histology
(). Proteasome function is required for DNA damage response and fanconi anemia pathway activation. Cancer Res.
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Tip60 is a haplo-insufficient tumour suppressor required for an oncogene-induced DNA damage response. Nature
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Melanoma cells express elevated levels of phosphorylated histone H2AX foci. J Invest Dermatol
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). Conserved modes of recruitment of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs to sites of DNA damage. Nature
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). DNA damage response as a candidate anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Nature
Applications
IF, Confocal Microscopy; IHC, ICC, Histology
(). ATM activation in normal human tissues and testicular cancer. Cell Cycle
Applications
IP, Co-IP; WB, IB, PCA; IHC, ICC, Histology
(). E2F1 uses the ATM signaling pathway to induce p53 and Chk2 phosphorylation and apoptosis. Mol Cancer Res.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA
(). Phosphorylation of SMC1 is a critical downstream event in the ATM-NBS1-BRCA1 pathway. Genes Dev.
Applications
WB, IB, PCA; IF, Confocal Microscopy
(). DNA damage activates ATM through intermolecular autophosphorylation and dimer dissociation. Nature
Applications
IP, Co-IP; WB, IB, PCA; IF, Confocal Microscopy

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